FRANKLIN AND STERLING HILL NEW JERSEY: THE WORLD'S MOST MAGNIFICENT MINERAL DEPOSITS
HOME MINERAL INDEX SEARCH LINKS BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION CULTURAL ASPECTS LOCAL GEOLOGY GEOLOGY OF THE ZINC DEPOSITS
GEOCHEMISTRY FLUORESCENCE THE MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES LISTS OF MINERALS DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY NESOSILICATES
SOROSILICATES AND CYCLOSILICATES INOSILICATES PHYLLOSILICATES TECTOSILICATES AND SILICATES OF UNKNOWN STRUCTURE
ELEMENTS SULFIDES ARSENIDES ANTIMONIDES AND SULFOSALTS OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES HALIDES AND CARBONATES
SULFATES BORATES TUNGSTATES AND MOLYBDATES ARSENATRES ARSENIDES PHOSPHATES AND VANADATES UNNAMED MINERALS


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Original table of contents

 

Publication information

 

Copyrights

 

Dedications

 

Preface

 

Acknowledgements

 

Original Table of Contents

Shown below is the complete table of contents, with page numbers, from the printed work.

“Franklin and Sterling Hill: the world's most magnificent mineral deposits” was printed in five parts, along with two supplements. These parts are separated by lines in the listing below.

Only those sections shaded in blue are included on this Website at this time.

To obtain printed copies of this work, click here.


[Part I]

Dedications V

Preface VII

Acknowledgements IX

Table of contents XI

List of tables XXIII

List of artwork XXIV

Bibliography 1

1. Introduction 67

General observations 67

Location 67

Local benchmarks 68

Nomenclature 69

The formal "Franklin-Sterling Hill Area" 71

Maps and illustrations 71

Units of measure 72

 

2. Historical perspective of local iron mining and processing 73

Introduction 73

Early iron-based activity in the general area 73

Bloomeries, forges, and furnaces 75

The Franklin furnace 77

Experimentation with franklinite 79

Furnace activity at Franklin (1854-1867) 80

Arrival of the railroads 82

Franklin furnace operations after 1870 83

Early development of iron mining 89

Regional iron mines south of Franklin and Sterling Hill 89

The Andover group 89

The Ogden group 91

Regional iron mines north of Franklin and Sterling Hill 91

Cedar Hill Mine 91

Pochuk Mine 92

Simpson Mine 92

Edsall Mine 92

Iron mining in the Franklin-Sterling Hill area 92

Iron mining at Sterling Hill 92

Iron mining at Franklin 92

Mining of the marble-hosted Furnace Magnetite Bed 96

Mining of the marble-hosted magnetite deposits 96

Black Hole 96

Longshore Mine 96

Pike's Peak Mine 96

Furnace Mine 97

Mining of the gneiss-hosted magnetite deposits 97

Hill Mines 97

 

3. Historical perspective of local zinc mining 101

Introduction 101

Zinc mining at Sterling Hill 101

Discovery and early workings 101

Nineteenth century zinc mining at Sterling Hill 103

The major zinc mines at Sterling Hill 105

Noble Mine 105

Passaic Mine 108

Sterling Mine 109

General discussion 111

Zinc mining at Franklin 112

Discovery and early workings 112

Nineteenth century zinc mining at Franklin 113

The age of litigation (1857-1897) 113

The major zinc mines and features at Franklin 123

Buckwheat and Taylor Mines 123

Buckwheat Open Cut or Franklin Open Cut 128

Buckwheat Dump 128

Southwest Opening 128

Weights and Measures Opening 128

New Jersey Zinc and Iron Company operations - west limb 132

Trotter Mine 132

Trotter Dump 133

Lehigh Mine 133

Hamburg Mine or Hamburg Road Mine 134

Parker Shaft and Parker Mine 134

Parker Dump 136

The Great Consolidation 136

Perspective 137

The Great Franklin Mine 139

Post-consolidation conditions 139

Interim activity (1897-1906) 139

The Franklin Mine coordinate system 140

New methods and the Palmer Shaft 141

Processes and operations 142

Closing 147

The Great Sterling Mine 147

Post-consolidation conditions 147

The Sterling Mine coordinate system 147

Processes and operations 149

Mining after 1960 149

The Lamont Geological Observatory Seismograph Station 150

Closing 154

Time-line for mining and historical events 155


[Part II]

4. The quarries in the Franklin Marble 161

General observations 161

Quarries in the Franklin-Sterling Hill Area 161

Furnace Quarry 161

Fowler Quarry 163

Franklin Quarry 163

Franklin Iron Company Quarry 165

Sussex Calcite Company Quarry 165

Search's gravel pit 166

Other quarries 166

Quarries outside the Franklin-Sterling Hill Area 166

Lime Crest Quarry 166

Bodnar Quarries 167

The Quarry 167

RAIA Quarry 169

McAfee Quarry 169

 

5. Major zinc-mining companies in the Franklin-Sterling Hill area 171

The Passaic Zinc Company 171

The Lehigh Zinc and Iron Company, Limited 171

The New Jersey Zinc Company and its miners 172

Historical notes 172

The human side 172

The miners 174

The corporation 180

Palmerton 182

Depositions 184

 

6. Beneficiation of the zinc ores 185

Early developments 185

The period of inventions 186

The Wetherill furnace and zinc oxide 186

The Wetherill magnetic separator 188

The mills 188

The mills at Franklin 188

The mills at Sterling Hill 203

The Mine Hill Railroad 205

Shipment 207

Smelters 209

Jersey City 209

Newark 210

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 210

Palmerton, Pennsylvania 211

The lead problem 211

Production 213

Exports 213

Products made from the zinc ores 214

Zinc-based paint 214

Spelter (zinc metal) 215

Spiegeleisen 216

Other products 216

 

7. Cultural aspects of Franklin and Sterling Hill 217

Men of distinction 217

Lawson H. Bauer 218

John L. Baum 220

Robert M. Catlin 220

Samuel Fowler 221

Clifford Frondel 222

Charles Palache 222

George Rowe 223

The mineral collector 224

Mineral collections 225

Local institutions 229

The Franklin Mineral Museum 229

The Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society 229

The Sterling Hill Mining Museum 230

The Franklin-Sterling Gem and Mineral Show 230

The specimen base 230

 

8. Regional and local geology of the Franklin-Sterling Hill area 235

General discussion 235

Regional geology 239

Local geology 241

General relations 241

The Precambrian 241

Metamorphism: extent, age, temperatures, and pressures 241

The great unconformity and the Cambrian and later rocks 242

Surficial geology 242

Structure 243

Major formations and rock units 243

Kittatinny Limestone 244

Hardyston Quartzite 244

Cork Hill Gneiss 244

Wildcat Marble 244

Median Gneiss 244

Pegmatite 244

Franklin Marble 245

Early work 245

Nomenclature 245

Description and mineralogy 245

The local magnetite deposits 247

The Furnace Magnetite Bed 247

The marble-hosted intermediate deposits 247

The magnetite deposits on Balls Hill 249

 

9. The geology and structure of the zinc deposits 251

General comments 251

The Franklin zinc deposit 251

Historical observations 251

General geologic relations 253

Dikes 253

Pegmatites 255

Potassic pegmatites 255

Contact relations for potassic pegmatites 256

Sodic pegmatites 257

Designations on mine maps 257

External morphology of the Franklin orebody 258

Dimensions 259

Internal structure and composition 259

Structure 259

The zinc ore units 260

The calcium silicate units 262

The Sterling Hill zinc deposit 263

Historical observations 263

General geologic relations 263

External morphology 264

General configuration 264

The keel 264

The east limb 264

The west limb 264

The cross-member 266

Dimensions 266

Internal structure 266

General relations 266

Faulting 267

The sinking hypothesis 267

Internal zoning 268

Outer zincite zone 268

Central zincite zone 268

Black willemite zone 268

Brown willemite zone 269

Pyroxene zones 269

Franklinite zone 269

Gneiss zone 269

Special features 269

Rubble breccia 269

Saprolite - the mud zone 269

Saprolite - the Sterling depression 271

Comparisons of the Franklin and Sterling Hill deposits 271

Similarities 271

Differences 271

Relations to nearby formations 272

Physical linkage hypotheses 272

The Langban Mine near Filipstad, Sweden 272

The origins of the deposits 273

Introduction 273

Theories of origin 274

Early observations and hypotheses 274

Recent studies 276

Models of the ore deposits 278

 

10. Geochemistry 279

General relations 279

Minor and trace elements 280

Host minerals for the elements 280

 

11. Fluorescence of minerals in ultraviolet 285

History and introduction 285

Uses in geology, mining, and milling 285

The literature of fluorescence 286

Influence of fluorescence on collectors and the general public 287

General discussion 288

Lists of fluorescent minerals 288

 

12. The mineral assemblages 291

The ore minerals 291

General relations and mineralogy 291

Textural aspects 293

Alterations and replacements 296

Silicates in ore 297

The calcium silicate minerals 300

General relations and mineralogy 300

Textural aspects 302

Alterations and replacements 305

Recrystallization of minerals 307

The "Parker-Shaft minerals" 308

The Trotter Shaft minerals 309

The "north orebody" at Sterling Hill 309

Giant crystals 310

Special features 310

Hydrothermal vein minerals 310

Exsolution mineral textures 314

Weathered and oxidized minerals 315

Post-mining minerals 315

Special chemically-distinct mineral groups 316

Manganese arsenates 316

Lead silicates 316

Nickel arsenides 316

Manganese arsenosilicates 316

Special mineral assemblages 316

Assemblages from the ore units 317

Assemblages from the calcium silicate units 317

Assemblages from veins 319

Assemblages from weathering or alteration environments 319

Assemblage from an anomalous geologic niche 319


[Part III]

13. Lists of minerals 321

The comprehensive list of minerals from the Franklin-Sterling Hill Area 322

Species unique to Franklin and Sterling Hill 324

Zinc minerals found at Franklin or Sterling Hill 325

Manganese minerals found at Franklin or Sterling Hill 325

Chronological list of valid minerals first-described from Franklin or Sterling Hill 326

 

14. Descriptive mineralogy 329

Order of presentation 329

Method of description 329

The silicate minerals 330

Lists of silicates 330

Zinc silicates 331

Manganese silicates 331

Calcium silicates 332

Iron silicates 332

Magnesium silicates 333

 

15. Nesosilicates 335

The olivine group 335

The humite group 344

The manganese-humite and leucophoenicite groups 347

The garnet group 357

Other nesosilicates 363

 

16. Sorosilicates and cyclosilicates 403

The epidote group 403

Other sorosilicates 407

The tourmaline group 424

 

17. Inosilicates -- chain silicates 429

The pyroxene group 429

The pyroxenoid group 436

The amphibole group 451

Other inosilicates 460


[Part IV]

18. Phyllosilicates - layer silicates 463

The mica group 463

The chlorite group 470

The stilpnomelane group 471

The friedelite group 475

The serpentine group 484

The clay group 486

Other layer silicates 487

 

19. Tectosilicates and silicates with unknown structures 507

Quartz 507

The feldspar group 508

The scapolite group 512

The zeolite group 513

Silicates with unknown structures 515

 

20. Elements 519

 

21. Sulfides, arsenides, antimonides, and sulfosalts 525

Sulfides 526

Arsenides and antimonides 544

Sulfosalts 553

 

22. Oxides and hydroxides 557

Zincite 558

The spinel group 566

Other oxides 584

 

23. Halides and carbonates 607

Halides 607

Carbonates 609

The calcite group 609

The dolomite group 616

Other carbonates 618


[Part V]

24. Sulfates, borates, tungstates, and molybdates 627

Sulfates 627

Borates 640

Tungstates and molybdates 643

 

25. Arsenates, arsenites, phosphates, and vanadates 647

The apatite group 649

Other arsenates, arsenites, phosphates, and vanadates 653

 

26. Unnamed minerals 687

 

Appendix I: List of obscure or general mineral names 691

 

Appendix II: Glossary of local terms 699

 

Appendix III: Sterling Mine operations 1966 711

 

Subject index 717

Mineral index 749


[First supplement]

Dedications V

Preface Vll

Acknowledgements IX

Table of contents XI

 

S1. Chemical data for the east and west limbs of the Sterling Hill orebody 757

Introduction 757

East Limb 759

General description 759

Description of ore at specific site 759

Chemical compositions - zincite, calcite, willemite, tephroite, and Mn-humites 760

Chemical compositions - franklinite 760

West limb 761

General description 761

Description of ore at specific site 767

Chemical compositions --zincite, calcite, willemite, and other silicates 767

Chemical compositions -- franklinite 770

Franklinite compositions: comparisons of east and west limbs 770

Qualification 770

 

S2. The Passaic Zinc Company 771

 

S3. 19th-century observations on geology and mining 789

Introduction 789

1822 "Observations and geological remarks on the minerals of Paterson and the valley of Sparta, in New Jersey" by Thomas Nuttall (excerpts) 789

1836 "Description of the geology of the State of New Jersey" by Henry D. Rogers (excerpts) 790

1845 "On the zinc mines of Franklin, Sussex County, New Jersey" by Francis Alger (excerpts) 792

1854 "The metallic wealth of the United States" by J. D. Whitney (excerpts) 796

"Geology of New Jersey" by George H. Cook (excerpts) 798

"Annual Report of the State Geologist" by George H. Cook (excerpts) 804

"Annual Report of the State Geologist" by George H. Cook (excerpts) 805

"On the dykes of micaceous diabase penetrating the bed of zinc ore at Franklin Furnace, Sussex County, New Jersey" by Ben. K. Emerson (excerpts) 806

"The zinc mines of Sussex County, New Jersey" by Nelson H. Darton (excerpts) 806

"The zinc ores of New Jersey: their occurrence and metallurgical treatment" by Fred P. Bemis (excerpts) 807

"Annual Report of the State Geologist" by George H. Cook (excerpts) 812

"Annual Report of the State Geologist" by J. C. Smock (excerpts) 813

"The ore deposits at Franklin Furnace and Ogdensburg, New Jersey" by James F. Kemp (excerpts) 813

"The franklinite deposits of Mine Hill, Sussex County, New Jersey" by Frank L. Nason (excerpts) 822

"Notes on the structure of the franklinite and zinc-ore beds of Sussex County, New Jersey" by William P. Blake (excerpts) 827

Annual Report of the State Geologist" by J. C. Smock (excerpts) 829

 

S4. Mineral images 831

 

S5. "A trip to Franklin Furnace" by John A. Manley 851


[Second supplement]

Dedications V

Preface V11

Acknowledgements IX

Table of contents XI

 

S6. 19th-century metallurgical processing of the ores from Franklin and Sterling Hill 855

Introduction 855

Anthracite blast furnace by William Kitchell (excerpts) 855

The Newark furnace 856

The Franklin furnace 856

Zinc paint by James T. Hodge (excerpts) 857

French process or indirect process 857

American process or direct process 857

New Jersey Zinc Company 857

Pennsylvania and Lehigh Zinc Company 858

The Passaic Mining and Manufacturing Company 858

The mining and metallurgy of zinc in the United States by F. L. Clerc (excerpts) 865

Spelter furnaces 865

Oxide furnaces 866

Spiegel furnaces 868

The zinc ores of New Jersey: their occurrence and metallurgical treatment by Fred P. Bemis (excerpts) 868

The New Jersey Zinc Company at Newark 868

Zinc oxide 870

Spiegeleisen 870

Spelter 871

The Passaic Zinc Company at Jersey City 871

The manufacture of spiegel from franklinite residuum by George C. Stone (excerpts) 872

An explosion in a zinc-fume condenser by C. H. McKenna (excerpts) 873

Patents and inventions, by Pete J. Dunn 874

Improvement in the manufacture of zinc white by Samuel T. Jones 876

 

S7. Excerpts from the Franklin Furnace Folio by Arthur C. Spencer 881

Magnetite iron ores 881

Magnetite mines - Franklin Furnace group 884

Zinc-bearing ores 886

Zinc mines 888

History of development 888

Description of the ores 889

Mine Hill deposit 890

Sterling Hill deposit 896

 

S8. 19th-century privately-reported observations on exploration and geology 901

Introduction 901

Report of J. P. Lesley on the franklinite range of minerals in Sussex County, New Jersey 901

Report on Mine Hill Tract and Clorinda Fowler Tract, Sussex Co., New Jersey by R. P. Stevens 908

Report on the probable extension southwards of the zinc deposits at Mine and Sterling Hills by Frank L. Nason 910

Contents 910

Introduction 910

Synopsis of report on the southern extension of the zinc beds on Mine and Sterling Hills 912

Mine Hill 912

Sterling Hill 914

Report on the southern extension of the zinc beds on Mine and Sterling Hills 914

Mine Hill 914

Dimensions of the zinc beds at Mine Hill and Sterling Hill 914

The thickness of the zinc bed at Mine Hill 914

The thickness of the bed in the mine workings 915

Extreme width of the bed before folding and erosion 915

Sterling Hill 921

Sterling Hill extension discussed 921

Dimensions of Sterling Hill veins 921

Properties in which lie the southern extension at Sterling Hill 923

 

S9. Rosy scenarios and great expectations 925

Introduction 925

Prospectus of the Jersey Franklinite Company, with a report on its mines and property by Silas Stillwell and John Silsby (excerpts) 925

Jersey Franklinite Company 925

The mines 926

The business of the company 926

Profits 926

What is required 927

How the cash capital is to be provided 927

Geological report -- the mineral belt of Sussex County, New Jersey by G. W. Baker for the Manganese Iron Ore Company (excerpts) 930

Report of R. P. Stevens, September 22, 1879 939

Report of Messrs. Platt, 1881 941

How fortunes are made by the New Jersey Mineral Company (excerpts) 944

Mining 944

Here is the story 944

Getting the property 946

The only reason 950

No waiting 950

Neighbor making millions 950

The report 952

Another engineer 952

Zinc wealth 952

Richest in the world 952

Why zinc? 952

"A clincher" for doubters 955

More about it 955

 

S10. Zinc mining at Franklin (1890-1900) and at Sterling Hill (1923) 957

Introduction 957

Sinking Parker Shaft at zinc mines, Franklin Furnace, New Jersey by J. A. Van Mater 957

Drilling 958

Firing 958

Timbering 959

Pumping 962

Mining practice at Sterling Hill Mine, New Jersey Zinc Company by G. H. Salton (excerpts) 966

The ore 967

Occurrence and geology 967

Structure 967

Outine of mining methods 968

The shaft 968

Shaft stations 969

Track equipment in shaft 969

The hoist 969

Loading stations 970

Man cars 970

Headframe 970

Signal systern 971

Pumps 971

Safety precautions 971

Development 971

Raises 972

Timber slides 973

Timbering 973

Tramming 973

Stoping 974

Transverse stopes 974

Longitudinal stopes 976

Underhand stopes 977

Filling 977

Blasting 977

Compressors 977

General 977

 

 

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